Lab Aids

Professional Development

To teach is to make a life long commitment to learning -- for our students and for ourselves. Teachers must work hard to stay abreast of new science content and pedagogy, which is why most states typically require ongoing professional development for re-certification every five years. LAB-AIDSĀ® can help help teachers acquire new content and skills, whether you are a veteran teacher, new to the profession, or somewhere in between.

Evidence of Impact

 

Research Base

The following links and citations provide background on approaches that inform the development of our programs.  In general, these consist of peer-refereed journal articles, papers given at professional meetings, or unpublished research that supports the pedagogy in some way, such as support for inquiry-based teaching and learning, the value of formative assessments in the science classroom, using literacy approaches to support acquisition of science concepts, and related studies.

This book chapter, by Ronald Anderson, can be found in Handbook of Research on Science Education (edited by Sandra Abell and Norman Lederman, 2007, pp. 807-830) traces the use of inquiry as a theme of science education curriculum improvement efforts since the launch of Sputnik in the late 1950s.  This is a concise summary of the use of inquiry in science curriculum development, with a good bibliography, and provides a good background when read in conjunction with the article on goals for the science curriculum, immediately following.

This book chapter, by Rodger Bybee and George DeBoer (in Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning, edited by Dorothy Gabel, 1994), provides an historical perspective on the goals of science education in the United States, with emphasis on subsequent changes in structure and function of science curricula. Written in the early 1990s and noteworthy for its anticipation of the changes associated with the release of the National Science Education Standards, the chapter also has an excellent bibliography.

In this paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in 2004, the authors explore the methodological challenges faced in fine tuning rubrics for scoring student learning in the SEPUP middle school life science course, Science and Life Issues.

This paper, presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, explores the challenges of creating effective extended items to assess middle school life science students' understanding of concepts related to the National Science Education Standards for Inquiry, Life Science, and Science in Personal and Societal Perspectives. The authors describe their process for developing and revising items in order to enhance opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding.

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of integration in principle and in practice and is based on documentary analysis of the Science and Sustainability high school program from SEPUP.  It includes a detailed analysis of a succession of evaluation questionnaires to teachers at field test centers used for the development of the program. Integration happened effectively in principle, but contradictions were evident in teachers' expectations of the balance between coverage of key science concepts and their contextualisation for citizenship.

This book discusses how to align classroom assessment with the national standards. As an alternative to the traditional single-letter grade system, it recommends SEPUP's assessment system, which can be used both for formative or summative assessments.   It can be read for free online.

This article, by Ron Bonnstetter, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, makes a strong case for using inquiry teaching strategies in the science classroom.  It was originally published in the Electronic Journal of Science Education); v3 n1, Sept 1998.

This article, by Lorsbach and Tobin, presents the case for using constructivism for teaching science in the classroom, and challenges the reader to reflect on his or her science teaching and to implement changes that accord with constructivism.

In this article by Stanley Pogrow, SEPUP modules are described as supplementary materials which provide content in ways that are creative and rigorous and that make it relevant to student. They also are instrumental in developing students' problem-solving and thinking skills.

This article, by David Perkins, explores the meaning of understanding and the importance of teaching for understanding. The author's thesis is that typical classrooms do not give sufficient presence to thoughtful engagement in understanding performance. How to teach for learning is reviewed, focusing on both teaching and assessment.

In a meta meta-analysis of 844 studies (over 243,000 students), Hattie (2009) found that reform science programs outperformed traditional programs (2592 effects, d = 0.40). The highest effects came from enhanced content strategies (relating topics to previous experience or engaging student interest, d= 1.48; collaborative learning strategies, d = 0.67; inquiry strategies, d = 0.65; assessment strategies, d = 0.51; and use of technology, d = 0.48).  (Full citation:  Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. Hattie, John C.  Routledge, London & New York, 2009)

This paper provides an excellent summary of the relevant research base for the underlying pedagogical approach used in the SEPUP programs, and is an excellent reference for interested readers.

Evidence of Impact

The following links and citations provide evidence of teacher or student impact, and include qualitative or quantitative studies, case studies, formative program/developmental studies, teacher action research and more.  These are listed by program.

High School Programs

  • SEPUP SGI Biology

Contact: Heather Maciejewski, Native American Magnet School, Buffalo (NY) Public Schools, hmm25@buffalo.edu

Heather has used the SGI Biology program for the past three years, beginning with her participation in the national field test of the program in 2007.  In 2008, 86% of her students passed the New York State Regents Living Environment Exam (a comprehensive, end-of-course test).  In 2009, her students' pass rates were 94%, and in 2010, 100% of her students passed the exam.  For comparison purposes, the average district pass rates vary between 55-60%.

  • SEPUP:  Science & Sustainability

Tacoma, WA

Contact:  Virginia Rehberg, Wilson High School, Tacoma (WA) Public Schools, vrehber@tacoma.k12.wa.us

Wilson High students use the Science & Sustainability program in their freshman year, and in 2009-10, student pass rates on the science portion of the Washington State High School Proficiency Exam (HSPE) improved from 23% to 44%.
        
Los Angeles, CA
SEPUP Matters for Science Reform in the LAUSD
        
In 1995, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) started implementing a two- year high school sequence of Integrated/Coordinated Science (ICS) classes that were substantially based on Science and Sustainability. The ICS students showed significant gains on the SAT9 (Stanford Achievement Test) science test (Scott, 2000). The SAT-9 is a norm-referenced assessment that includes a science subtest designed to assess knowledge from life, physical, and earth and space sciences. The results of the LAUSD study of ICS also showed higher numbers of students, and in particular underrepresented minority students, intended to enroll in advanced science courses after taking ICS. The report is available, below, and was also published, in part, in the article "Integrated Science Study, in The Science Teacher, 67 (6), 56-59 (2000).

Middle School Programs

  • SEPUP Middle Level Programs

Contact: Jeanette Bartley, University of Chicago, jeanettebartley@utepchicago.org

Jeanette is formerly the K-8 Science Manager, Chicago Public Schools.  Beginning in 2003, Chicago Public Schools began to implement SEPUP in grades 7-8 and later including grade 6 as well.  District-wide performance (% students scoring proficient or better) on the Illinois State Achievement Test (ISAT) has increased from 47.6 in 2003 to 60.6 in 2006 (source:  Chicago Public Schools).   

Contact:  Dr. Stan Hill, Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, Wake-Forest University School of Medicine, shill@wfubmc.edu

Dr. Hill is formerly the K-12 Science Director, Winston-Salem/Forsyth County (NC) Schools. The Winston Salem/Forsyth County Schools(WSFCS) is comprised of 68 schools, including 14 middle and 8 high schools.  In its baseline year, 2002, the district served 46, 492 students; 51% white, 35% African-American, 10% Hispanic.

Winston-Salem has been using SEPUP modules in its middle and high schools for more than ten years.  The District uses some FOSS and STC units in its elementary science program and SEPUP units as the main component of its middle level (6-8) program in science. Teachers attend periodic staff development sessions led by district trainers, who have been themselves trained by SEPUP and LAB-AIDS staff.

In 2004-2005, approximately 50% of the Winston-Salem teachers were using SEPUP materials in their classrooms. According to the midpoint review of the district Urban Systemic Initiative (USI) program1, the SEPUP students outperformed their non-SEPUP peers.  As the table shows, the mean normal curve equivalent (NCE) scores for eighth grade SEPUP students averaged four points higher than their non-SEPUP peers. Moreover, this pattern persisted across all subgroups. This test was given early in the 2004-05 school year, and the SEPUP/non-SEPUP designation is based on the SEPUP status of the 7th grade teacher.

(table)

Contact:  Wendy M. Jackson, Ph.D., CCT Project Director, DePaul University, Chicago wjackso7@depaul.edu

In 2009, CPS began a concerted effort to strengthen the quality of science education at the middle grades level by ensuring that science teachers have the necessary credentials, access to high quality instructional materials, and sustained, coherent professional development on those materials.  The district expanded its scope and sequence to include SEPUP at 6th grade in addition to 7th and 8th grade.  A cadre of professional development leaders, drawn from among the most effect middle grade science teachers in the district, was created by the district and supported by Lab-Aids.  One result of this concerted effort was a jump in state test scores for middle grade science by 5.6 points, the largest gain for any grade and subject.

Contact:  Linda C Smith, Yorktown (IN) Middle School lsmith@yorktown.k12.in.us

I wanted to share some data feedback from our pilot of Genetics with my 8thGraders [in May 2011].  I am a strong proponent of data driven instruction and so I always pre and post test students with each unit.  For the SEPUP Genetics, I chose to give the test bank test as is for the Pre-test and Post-test.  I gave the test to 93 students.  Of the 93 students, all made less that 60%, but one student who made a 70% on the pre-test.

When I post tested the students I had the following results:

(table)

The majority of students showed at least 40% growth and many had over 50%.  I shared with John that I have always felt as though I was a good science teacher, but I believe a teacher who has great curriculum can truly be a GREAT TEACHER.  In these high stakes testing times in education having material that builds and scaffolds truly can make good education great and I am so excited to have had the chance to pilot SEPUP and to get to adopt SEPUP for our middle school science curriculum.  I really believe the students learned and understood Genetics through this curriculum.  I look forward to all the science that will be happening at YMS next year in all of our science classrooms.

SEPUP Formative/Developmental Efforts

As part of the national field test efforts for its middle and high school program, SEPUP examines the impact of its programs on student content knowledge attainment by means of pre-post tests with piloting student populations.  A summary of these efforts can be found in this document.  Effect sizes, as measured by both Cohen's d and Cliff's d generally ranged from 0.6 - 0.8, indicating very significant gains as a result of using the materials.

Research by Dr. Mark Wilson and his associates at the Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, found that the implementation of the embedded assessment system in the middle level SEPUP physical science program led to educationally significant increases in student achievement.